The Christology commonly called “Socinian” (after Fausto Sozzini, one of the founders of Unitarian theology) refers to the belief that Jesus Christ began his life when he was born as a human. In other words, the teaching that Jesus pre-existed his human body is rejected. There are various views ranging from the belief that Jesus was simply a human who, because of His greatness, was adopted by God as His Son to the belief that Jesus literally became the Son of God when He was conceived by the Holy Spirit (see Virgin birth of Jesus).
Unitarians believe that mainline Christianity does not adhere to strict monotheism, but that Unitarians do by maintaining that Jesus was a great man and a prophet of God, perhaps even a supernatural being, but not God himself. They believe Jesus did not claim to be God and that his teachings did not suggest the existence of a triune God. Unitarians believe in the moral authority but not necessarily the divinity of Jesus. Their theology is thus opposed to the trinitarian theology of other Christian denominations.
Unitarian Christology can be divided according to whether or not Jesus is believed to have had a pre-human existence. Both forms maintain that God is one being and one “person” and that Jesus is the (or a) Son of God, but generally not God himself.
Biblical Answers Against Unitarianism
1 Unitarians believe Jesus Christ began his life when he was born as a human.
The Bible says: Jesus Christ pre-existed as the Word, the classic text we would look towards is the first chapter of John.
John 1:1-3, 14 In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. The same was in the beginning with God. All things were made by him; and without him was not any thing made that was made. … And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, (and we beheld his glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father,) full of grace and truth.
The text plainly states “In the beginning was the Word” the Word always eternally existed. And the “Word was with God” in the Greek this portion reads (πρὸς τὸν θεόν) the Word and God were face to face. You can only be face to face with a person, it goes onto say “and the Word was God” again in Greek the text reads (καὶ θεὸς ἦν ὁ λόγος) which means and God was the Word (John1:1).
We then read “All things were made by Him” (the Word) “and without him was not any thing made that was made”, there was nothing made without Word. Here’s the second claim of the Word’s deity because John plainly says in v1:1 the Word is God.
Next is the incarnation as it reads “And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us” this is when Jesus Christ was born in Bethlehem better known as the virgin birth of the Lord Jesus Christ.
1:1 Ἐν ἀρχῇ ἦν ὁ λόγος καὶ ὁ λόγος ἦν πρὸς τὸν θεόν καὶ θεὸς ἦν ὁ λόγος
1:2 οὗτος ἦν ἐν ἀρχῇ πρὸς τὸν θεόν 1:3 πάντα δι᾽ αὐτοῦ ἐγένετο καὶ χωρὶς αὐτοῦ ἐγένετο οὐδὲ ἕν ὃ γέγονεν
1:14 Καὶ ὁ λόγος σὰρξ ἐγένετο καὶ ἐσκήνωσεν ἐν ἡμῖν καὶ ἐθεασάμεθα τὴν δόξαν αὐτοῦ δόξαν ὡς μονογενοῦς παρὰ πατρός πλήρης χάριτος καὶ ἀληθείας
Conclusion: The Word always existed with God and is a distinct person. The Word made all things, and the Word became flesh.
2 They believe Jesus did not claim to be God and that his teachings did not suggest the existence of a triune God.
The Bible says: Speaking of the distinction of persons within the Godhead we are given the command to baptise in the name of the Father and of the Son and the of Holy Spirit.
Matthew 28:19 Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost:
We clearly see the verse is speaking of 3 distinct persons, not one person but 3, the Greek construction absolutely requires that it’s speaking of 3 when using the copulative KAI connects two nouns of the same case. This “KAI” joins all 3 in the verse proving distinctions.
In John chapter 8 discourse the Lord Jesus is speaking to the Jews said.
John 8:31-32, 58 Then said Jesus to those Jews which believed on him, If ye continue in my word, then are ye my disciples indeed; And ye shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free. … Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Before Abraham was, I am.
If the Jews would abide in the words of Jesus who has the words of eternal life (John 6:68), but they didn’t want to listen just like today. They would no longer be servants of sin (John 8:34) and would be free of their sins. He then made the astounding statement which rocked the Jews. He pointed the Jews to His pre-existence before the incarnation saying “Your father Abraham rejoiced to see my day: and he saw it, and was glad.” (John 8:56).
The Jews in mocking tone reply “Thou art not yet fifty years old, and hast thou seen Abraham?” (John 8:57). The tension in the air had to be intense as they anticipated an answer, Jesus says “…Verily, verily, I say unto you, Before Abraham was, I am.” (John 8:58).
The reaction of the Jewish people says it all, the following verse tell us they wanted to stone Jesus Christ why? First, they knew He was claiming to be Yahweh, how can we know this for sure? John chapter 10 gives us more information on why the Jews sought to stone him.
The question was asked to Jesus Christ.
John 10:24 Then came the Jews round about him, and said unto him, How long dost thou make us to doubt? If thou be the Christ, tell us plainly.
Jesus then tells them “I told you and you would not believe” He also said “His sheep hear His voice and know Him” and “He gives them eternal life” and the works He does in HIs Father’s name bears witness (John 10:25-29). It’s the following statement which one again gains the same response we read about in John chapter 8. The Lord Jesus says.
John 10:30 I and my Father are one.
Once again the Jews wanted to stone Him, why? Well, let’s read the verses in context.
John 10:31-33 Then the Jews took up stones again to stone him. Jesus answered them, Many good works have I shewed you from my Father; for which of those works do ye stone me? The Jews answered him, saying, For a good work we stone thee not; but for blasphemy; and because that thou, being a man, makest thyself God.
Jesus asked them “Many good works have I shewed you from my Father; for which of those works do ye stone me?”. Remember the Lord Jesus is healing the lame, giving sight to blind people, forgiving people of their sins etc. And the Jews answer is very telling, they said, “For a good work we stone thee not; but for blasphemy; and because that thou, being a man, makest thyself God”.
They understood only God can make the claims the Lord Jesus Christ claimed. And they said He’s trying to make Himself God. And because Jesus Christ never lied He had the opportunity to rebuke them and say “I’m not God” but does He? No, He never denies that He’s God because He is God Almighty (Revelation 4:8)